The Australian Electoral Commission provides names, addresses, sex, and age group to approved research studies. This is permitted by the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918. We have not been given any additional information about you. For more information about this, you can visit: https://www.aec.gov.au/enrolling_to_vote/about_electoral_roll/medical_research.htm
The study will mainly cost you in time. We estimate that the monthly surveys will take about 5 minutes, and the survey at the beginning about 15 minutes. If you are in the sunscreen group it will take you a couple of minutes each morning to apply sunscreen.
Vitamin D helps to regulate the amount of calcium in your bloodstream. Having enough vitamin D is important for your bone and muscle health. It is possible that vitamin D might influence many other health outcomes, although this is not yet proven.
In Australia, the levels of a chemical called 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) in your blood are used to classify your vitamin D status as follows:
|Sufficient vitamin D:||> 50 nmol/L|
|Mild deficiency:||30 to 49 nmol/L|
|Moderate deficiency:||12.5 to 29 nmol/L|
|Severe deficiency:||<12.5 nmol/L|
The UVI is a measure used to indicate the intensity of the sun’s ultraviolet rays, particularly those that lead to sunburn. The Cancer Council recommends that when the UVI is 3 or greater, and you are going to be outdoors for more than a few minutes, you should ensure you have applied sunscreen, and that you seek shade, and wear covering clothing, a hat and sunglasses. The Cancer Council now advises that to protect the skin from the sun when you are going about your everyday activities (e.g., walking to the coffee shop) you should apply sunscreen each morning as part of your usual routine, on all days when the UVI is forecast to reach 3 at some time during the day.
The grid below shows the average monthly maximum UVI for selected Australian locations. The shaded cells show months of the year when routine daily sunscreen application is not needed (you should still use sunscreen if you are going to be outside for an extended period).
The following people are collaborating on the Sun-D Trial:
|Professor David Whiteman:||QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute|
|Dr Mary Waterhouse||QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute|
|A/Prof Louisa Gordon||QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute|
|Dr Gunter Hartel||QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute|
|A/Prof Donald McLeod||QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute|
|A/Prof Craig Sinclair||Cancer Council Victoria|
|Prof Robyn Lucas||Australian National University|
|Hayley Bennett||Melanoma and Skin Cancer Advocacy Network|
|Tamara Dawson||Melanoma and Skin Cancer Advocacy Network|
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered to the best study design to understand the effect of an intervention (e.g., sunscreen) on health (e.g., vitamin D). This is because by randomly assigning people to the sunscreen and control groups, we even out any differences between daily sunscreen users and non-users. That is, the percentage of people who spend lots of time outdoors, or who are regular exercisers, will be the same between the two groups. That means we can be sure that any differences in vitamin D levels that arise between the two groups are due to the sunscreen, and not due to anything else that might influence vitamin D levels.
We are using sunscreen that we have purchased from Hamilton (Hamilton Active Family and Hamilton Everyday Face).
Hamilton Active Family ingredients
Active ingredients: Octyl Salicylate 5%, Homosalate 10%, Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane 4%, Octocrylene 8%.
Also contains: Phenoxyethanol, Benzoates, Benzyl Alcohol, and Hydroxybenzoates.
Hamilton Everyday Face ingredients
Active ingredients: Octocrylene 3%, Methoxydibenzoylmethane 3%, 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor 2%, Ethylhexyl Triazone 2%.
If you are in the control group we will ask you to continue with your usual sun protection behaviour, including sunscreen use. It is fine to apply sunscreen to avoid your skin getting burnt, as you usually would.