This project will build important new tools for understanding the role of the immune system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a form of motor neuron disease (MND). Inflammatory responses by resident brain and spinal cord immune cells (microglia) have an important role in ALS/MND and are key targets for therapy. Until now, research on microglia has been largely restricted to cells from animal origin. We now have new techniques to generate microglia directly from ALS/MND patients to help understand the disease and test patient-specific drugs to modulate the immune response in the brain and spinal cord. This project will provide a new approach to investigating and treating inflammation in MND.