Modern instruments can measure the eye with exquisite accuracy. With such measurements, one can show indirectly that many eye traits are highly heritable.
Our recent work has taken advantage of advances in molecular genetics to identifying several of the specific genes underlying this heritability.
In recent years, our Queensland twins have helped identify genes involved in refractive error, optic nerve size, corneal thickness and intraocular pressure. In some cases, the genes identified using twins have also proved important in determining risk for particular eye diseases.