Despite substantial improvements in the management of cardiovascular disease over the last 20 years, heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. A major event, such as a heart attack, can cause substantial death of the contractile muscle cells in the heart (cardiomyocytes). Being one of the least regenerative organs in the body, the adult heart is unable to replenish these lost cardiomyocytes. This leads to the placement of these lost cardiomyocytes with non-contractile fibrotic scar tissue, which is stiff and decreases the heart’s performance and also increases the risk of patients having fatal arrhythmia. This process ultimately results in heart failure and the only effective treatment for end-stage heart failure is heart transplantation. Heart failure has a major impact on the patient’s quality of life, results in a large health care burden (>$1 billion annually in Australia), and a mortality rate of ~50% after 5 years. Besides transplantation, regeneration of the heart remains the only conceivable cure for ischaemic heart disease and therefore a central goal of current research efforts in the field.