Medical researchers, including QIMR scientists, have shown that a gene known to have a strong connection to obesity and other bodyweight related health issues also increases the risk of suffering from melanoma.
The study published today in the medical journal Nature Genetics, shows that genetic variation in the FTO gene, which is carried by 29 per cent of the population, increases melanoma risk by 16 per cent.
The study, led by the international Consortium, GenoMEL, involved scientists from the Queensland Institute of Medical Research and the Westmead Millennium Institute in Sydney.
This Australian collaboration contributed data on over 6000 Australians, including melanoma patients, which was combined with data from studies in Europe and the United States, giving a combined population of more than 62,000 people.
It’s the first time the FTO gene has been shown to be related to something other than Body Mass Index.
Professor Graham Mann from the University of Sydney at the Westmead Millennium Institute and the Melanoma Institute Australia says the discovery sheds some light on how the FTO gene works.
“We’ve known for some time that FTO has a major influence on body weight and is connected to many of the health problems that go with bodyweight but the findings of this study broaden the FTO gene’s importance to medical science,” said Professor Mann.
“We need to look more closely at how FTO controls cell growth because a better understanding of that might give us novel ways of controlling melanoma risk.”
“One of the hopes for the future is that there may be medications which can be taken in the long term that reduce the risk of particular cancers like melanoma.”
Australia has the highest rate of skin cancers in the world. While melanoma is the least common form of skin cancer it is the most life threatening.
In 2010, 1452 Australians died from the disease.
Dr Matthew Law from QIMR’s Statistical Genetics group said studies like the Nature Genetics paper were only possible through national and international collaborations.
“Australian scientists have long been at the forefront of melanoma research and this work reinforces the contributions we make to worldwide efforts to understand this deadly disease,” Dr Law said.
Professor Mann said the discovery of the link between FTO and melanoma adds to the rapidly growing list of genes associated with increased risk of the cancer.
“It is clear that there are a lot of genetic variations that increase our risk of getting cancer and in the case of melanoma we have been able to show over the last five years that there are at least 15 genes that contribute to our risk and probably a lot more,” said Professor Mann.
“We are working quite hard at putting these genetic discoveries to build a profile of people who are at greater risk of getting melanoma and therefore tailoring their care and prevention.”
The study into the link between the FTO gene and melanoma was supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.